|In January 1999, the distinguished scholar Pandit Dr. Parameswara Aithal retired from his position at Heidelberg University. To mark this occasion, Prof. Axel Michaels organized a symposium on the institution of the Pandit and the future of traditional Sanskrit scholarship in India and the West. The present volume containes the learned papers of the conference which cover a wide range of topics, e.g. the pandit as a private scholar, university teacher, public intellectual or legal adviser also traditional ways of Sanskrit teaching and learning, especially the methods of memorization and transfer of traditional knowledge, among other things. Life histories of some well-known pandits such as Krishnashastri Chiplunkar, Hazari Prasad Dvivedi, Gopinath Kaviraj, V.S. Apte, and others are also provided.